There were 884 new cases of type 1 diabetes, and age at diagnosis rose from 7.6 yr in 1990/1 to 8.9 yr in 2008/9 (r2 = 0.31, p = 0.009). There was a progressive increase in type 1 diabetes incidence among children <15 yr (p<0.0001), reaching 22.5 per 100,000 in 2009. However, the rise in incidence did not occur evenly among age groups, being 2.5-fold higher in older children (10–14 yr) than in the youngest group (0–4 yr). The incidence of new cases of type 1 diabetes was highest in New Zealand Europeans throughout the study period in all age groups (p<0.0001), but the rate of increase was similar in New Zealand Europeans and Non-Europeans. Type 1 diabetes incidence and average annual increase were similar in both sexes. There was no change in BMI SDS shortly after diagnosis, and no association between BMI SDS and age at diagnosis.
One of the most important aspects of diabetes management is to maintain a healthy body weight. Being overweight not only increases your risk of heart disease, stroke and some cancers, it also makes your diabetes harder to manage. Small changes in your diet such as reducing your portion sizes and swapping to low-fat dairy products can help you to achieve a healthy body weight and manage your diabetes.
Understanding how food affects blood sugar level and constantly monitoring it is a way of life for those with diabetes. This largely involves the balance between the amount of insulin currently in the body at any given time and how the foods we eat change that it. At center stage for this daily drama are carbohydrates. Knowing the difference between how the various types of carbohydrates are processed by the body is key to maintaining blood sugar levels. (more…)
The Endocrinology Service at Starship Children's Health provides specialist care for all children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in the Auckland region (New Zealand). Its Paediatric Diabetes Service provides centralised medical care for all diabetic children up to 15 yr who reside in the Auckland region, drawing from the regional population of approximately 1.5 million [12]. All children or adolescents diagnosed with type 1 diabetes who attended the Paediatric Service between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2009 were eligible for this study. Subjects were captured from a comprehensive database (Starbase) that gathers data on all children with type 1 diabetes in the Auckland region. This information was cross-referenced with hospital admission data and subsequent clinical follow up, leading to a case ascertainment >95% for children with type 1 diabetes [13].

I act as a care giver for my grandparents who both suffer from type 2 diabetes. This article is right on point with having to make changes to one’s diet to help control blood glucose and overall health such as heart disease as well as staying active and exercising. The two naturally go hand in hand, but many diabetics like my grandparents have foot complications with swelling and neuropathy, requiring proper fitting footwear that is hard to find if you don’t know where to look. I found this guide on shoes for diabetics that helps explain what they are and their importance, especially for diabetics. Hopefully others find it as helpful as I did when caring for those diagnosed with diabetes.
It’s heart-wrenching to watch all that people go through as natural disasters play out on our television screens. Tucked away, along with sympathy for those in the midst of a hurricane, earthquake, flood or other catastrophic events, is the very understandable thought, “I’m so glad that’s not happening to me!”. The truth is, however, that we are all susceptible to major life-changing events, and they can happen with very little notice. Those with a chronic medical condition, like diabetes, are especially vulnerable and should take seriously the advice to be prepared.    (more…)
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From 1994 onwards, anthropometric data were recorded at each clinic visit, and for the purposes of this study we used data from the first post-diagnosis clinic that usually occurred 3–4 months afterwards. Standard deviation scores (SDS) were calculated based on the British 1990 Growth Reference Data [17] to obtain height SDS, weight SDS, and body mass index (BMI) SDS.
Patients were involved in all stages of the study, including the initial conceptualisation and formative work leading to the development of SMS4BG (for more information, see the development paper28). Patient feedback informed the intervention modality, purpose, and structure, and patients reviewed intervention content before it was finalised. Patient feedback on the acceptability of SMS4BG through the pilot study28 led to improvements to the intervention including additional modules, the option for feedback graphs to be posted, additional tailoring variables, and a longer duration of intervention. Patient feedback also informed the design of this trial—specifically its duration, the inclusion criteria, and recruitment methods. Additionally, patients contributed to workshops of key stakeholders held to discuss interpretation, dissemination of the findings, and potential implementation. We have thanked all participants for their involvement and they will be given access to all published results when these are made publicly available.
Of the 189 responders (35.0% response rate) to the patient survey, 19.6% (37/189) had used a diabetes app. App users were younger and in comparison to other forms of diabetes mellitus, users prominently had type 1 DM. The most favored feature of the app users was a glucose diary (87%, 32/37), and an insulin calculator was the most desirable function for a future app (46%, 17/37). In non-app users, the most desirable feature for a future app was a glucose diary (64.4%, 98/152). Of the 115 responders (40.2% response rate) to the HPs survey, 60.1% (68/113) had recommended a diabetes app. Diaries for blood glucose levels and carbohydrate counting were considered the most useful app features and the features HPs felt most confident to recommend. HPs were least confident in recommending insulin calculation apps.
Cost effectiveness as well as healthcare use was assessed during the study period compared with the nine months before randomisation (presented separately). We measured patient engagement and satisfaction with the intervention using semistructured interviews and data from the content management system. The secondary outcomes health related quality of life and perceived social support were not included in the initial trial registration but added before commencing the trial.
A total of 793 individuals were referred to the study and assessed for eligibility between June 2015 and November 2016. Of these, 366 were randomised to the intervention and control groups (n=183 each; fig 1). The final nine month follow-up assessments were completed in August 2017, with loss to follow-up (that is, no follow-up data on any outcome) low in both groups (overall 7/366=2%). A total of 12 participants (six per group) were excluded from the primary outcome analysis because of no follow-up HbA1c results after randomisation. Baseline characteristics of participants are presented in table 1, and no adverse events were recorded from the study or protocol deviations.
-Keep your blood pressure under control. The same lifestyle changes that control blood glucose levels (dietary modifications and exercise) may also help you keep your blood pressure at safe levels. The American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes keep their blood pressure below 140/80, but check with your health care professional about what target is best for you.
A nine month, two arm, parallel, randomised controlled trial was conducted in adults with poorly controlled diabetes between June 2015 and August 2017. The study received ethical approval from the Health and Disability Ethics Committee (14/STH/162), and the protocol was published30 and registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12614001232628). Trial development and reporting was guided by the CONSORT31 and CONSORT EHEALTH32 statements.

The biggest study limitation was the difficulty with recruitment, which resulted in a sample size smaller than initially planned. One reason for the low recruitment was the required time needed by clinicians to identify and refer patients to the study, which was not always available. Furthermore, many referred patients who did not meet the HbA1c inclusion criteria were still referred because clinicians had thought these individuals would benefit from the programme. This limitation highlights the difference between research and implementation where strict criteria can be relaxed. Alternative methods of recruitment could be explored, such as through laboratory test facilities to ensure access to the intervention regardless of clinician availability.
We all have our favorite holiday activities. It might be watching fireworks on the 4th of July, heading to the beach for Labor Day, as summer winds down, or finding the perfect pumpkin to carve for Halloween. For many of us, it’s the non-stop activities that seem to begin with the Macy’s Day Parade, early Thanksgiving morning, and continue through the last bowl game on New Year’s Day. But, no matter what holiday or activity tops your list, you can bet that it involves not only extreme amounts of food and drink but the kind designed to send blood sugar levels through the roof. (more…)
Like my customers, I use an insulin pump to control my diabetes because it allows me to be spontaneous and flexible in managing my diabetes while reducing hypoglycemia. Reaching target blood glucose levels is not always easy, but being a Pharmacist, as well as a Certified Diabetes Educator and Certified Pump Trainer, I know the importance of managing my blood glucose to reduce long-term complications. You are welcome to contact me about any aspect of insulin pump therapy or with any questions about specific insulin pump supplies.
Competing interests: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf and declare: support from Waitemata District Health Board for the development of SMS4BG, and support from the Health Research Council of New Zealand in partnership with the Waitemata District Health Board and Auckland District Health Board, and the New Zealand Ministry of Health for the randomised controlled trial; no financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.
Interventions The intervention group received a tailored package of text messages for up to nine months in addition to usual care. Text messages provided information, support, motivation, and reminders related to diabetes self management and lifestyle behaviours. The control group received usual care. Messages were delivered by a specifically designed automated content management system.
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This study found that a tailored, theoretically based, SMS based, diabetes self management support programme led to modest improvements in glycaemic control. The effects of intervention were also seen in four of 21 secondary outcomes, including foot care behaviour and ratings of diabetes support. The programme showed a high level of acceptability with the overwhelming majority of participants finding the intervention useful and willing to recommend it to others.
Interventions The intervention group received a tailored package of text messages for up to nine months in addition to usual care. Text messages provided information, support, motivation, and reminders related to diabetes self management and lifestyle behaviours. The control group received usual care. Messages were delivered by a specifically designed automated content management system.
Clinical psychologists have studied psychology at University, usually for at least seven years. They have specialised in learning about how the feelings, actions, beliefs, experiences and culture of people affect the way they live. They have learned how to listen to and understand people’s emotional and psychological problems and how to help people make changes in their lives.
Patients were involved in all stages of the study, including the initial conceptualisation and formative work leading to the development of SMS4BG (for more information, see the development paper28). Patient feedback informed the intervention modality, purpose, and structure, and patients reviewed intervention content before it was finalised. Patient feedback on the acceptability of SMS4BG through the pilot study28 led to improvements to the intervention including additional modules, the option for feedback graphs to be posted, additional tailoring variables, and a longer duration of intervention. Patient feedback also informed the design of this trial—specifically its duration, the inclusion criteria, and recruitment methods. Additionally, patients contributed to workshops of key stakeholders held to discuss interpretation, dissemination of the findings, and potential implementation. We have thanked all participants for their involvement and they will be given access to all published results when these are made publicly available.
Type 2 Diabetes is one of the major consequences of the obesity epidemic and according to Diabetes New Zealand is New Zealand’s fastest-growing health crisis. In terms of diabetes diagnosis, Type 2 currently accounts for around 90% of all cases. Also of concern to health professionals is that there are large numbers of people with silent, undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes which may be damaging their bodies. An estimated 258,000 New Zealanders are estimated to have some form of diabetes, with than number doubling over the past decade.

We’ll also teach you what to do with everything you’re learning. Using the latest research and stories from people with diabetes, we’ll help you make small changes through short videos and simple action items. Soon, you’ll be seeing results, feeling better and having more energy. Many people with diabetes say that they’re healthier NOW than they were before they were diagnosed– you can be one of them!
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