Diabetes mellitus (DM) requires tight control of blood glucose to minimize complications and mortality [1,2]. However, many people with DM have suboptimal glycemic control [3,4]. Use of mobile phone apps in diabetes management has been shown to modestly improve glycemic control [5-10]. Despite this promise, health apps remain largely unregulated, and diabetes apps have not always had safety approval [11] or incorporated evidence-based guidelines [12,13].
This study shows the potential of SMS4BG to provide a low cost, scalable solution for increasing the reach of diabetes self management support. It showed that a text messaging programme can increase a patient’s feelings of support without the need for personal contact from a healthcare professional. Half of the intervention group reported sharing the messages with others. Traditional education for diabetes self management is delivered to individual patients, but there is benefit of support from other people being involved.45 This is particularly pertinent to ethnic populations such as Māori groups, in whom family have an important role in supporting diabetes self management.46
Lack of insulin results in ketoacidosis. Ketones are acids that develop in the blood and appear in the urine. Ketones could poison the body and this is a warning sign that the diabetes is out of control. Symptoms of diabetes involve nausea, shortness of breath, vomiting, fruity flavor in breath, dry mouth, and high glucose levels. Complications associated with diabetes are retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, heart disease and gangrene. Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar is yet another problem associated with diabetes mellitus. Symptoms include hunger, tremor, seizure, sweating, dizziness, jerks, tingling sensation and pale skin color. Improper management of diabetes causes low blood sugar, which in turn causes hypoglycemic coma. It is a life threatening condition.

Type 2 Diabetes is one of the major consequences of the obesity epidemic and according to Diabetes New Zealand is New Zealand’s fastest-growing health crisis. In terms of diabetes diagnosis, Type 2 currently accounts for around 90% of all cases. Also of concern to health professionals is that there are large numbers of people with silent, undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes which may be damaging their bodies. An estimated 258,000 New Zealanders are estimated to have some form of diabetes, with than number doubling over the past decade.
Only children aged <15 yr were included. Type 1 diabetes was diagnosed based on clinical features. All patients had elevated blood glucose at presentation: either a random measurement of ≥11.1 mmol/l and presence of classical symptoms, or fasting blood glucose ≥7.1 mmol/l. In addition, all patients met at least one of the following criteria: a) diabetic ketoacidosis; b) presence of at least two type 1 diabetes antibodies (to glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen 2, islet cell, or insulin autoantibodies); or c) ongoing requirement for insulin therapy. Clinical and demographic data were prospectively recorded on all patients at each outpatient visit.
Strengths of the current study included its sample size, diverse population, very low loss to follow-up, pragmatic design, absence of protocol violations, and objectively measured primary outcome. Although the initial sample size target was not reached, the final sample of 366 participants is larger than previous randomised controlled trials in this area. This study contributes valuable evidence to the literature on the use of text messages in diabetes particularly for individuals with poor control. Considering poorer outcomes are experienced by ethnic minority groups, a strength of this study was its high proportion of participants representing these groups.
Diabetes Stops Here will provide snap shots of the people who are committed to putting an end to this disease, from inspiring volunteer stories to moving staff experiences to celebrity stories about how to be successful while living with diabetes. The stories, interviews and news will be shared by the blog’s author, a staff member at the American Diabetes Association, who has lived with type 1 diabetes for nearly ten years.  

Having a healthy lifestyle includes daily physical activity which can prevent or delay Type 2 Diabetes. There are plenty of organised activities you can take part in such as Walk to Work, but you can also do your own thing and get moving with family and friends in any way you like. It’s most important to remember that activity is for life, not just one day. Regular physical activity could include walking, riding a bike, dancing or swimming.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has mandated November 14 as World Diabetes Day, an international event to raise awareness about diabetes. Close to 350 million people in the world have diabetes and WHO reports that a person dies from this disease every 6 seconds – that’s 5 million deaths. Currently 1 in 11 adults have diabetes worldwide and this is predicted to increase to 1 adult in 10 (652 million) by 2040. Sobering statistics indeed.
In Type 1 Diabetes, symptoms are often sudden and can be life-threatening; therefore it is usually diagnosed quite quickly. In Type 2 Diabetes, many people have no symptoms at all, while other signs can go unnoticed, being seen as part of ‘getting older’. Therefore, by the time symptoms are noticed, complications of diabetes may already be present.

The survey was completed by 189 of the 539 patients (35.0% response rate, 158/491 from participants with email addresses, 31/48 from telephone contact). Table 1 shows the characteristics of responders. Responders (N=189) were older, with a mean age of 50.0 years (SD 15.7) than non-responders (N=350), who had a mean age of 45.9 years (SD 16.1; P=.004) and had lower HbA1c of 62.2 mmol/mol (SD 14.0) (7.8, SD 1.1%) than non-responders (N=325) with mean of 68.9 mmol/mol (SD 18.2; 8.5, SD 2.3%; P<.001). There were no significant differences in the rate and type of anti-hypertensive, lipid lowering, and anti-hyperglycemic medications used between responders and non-responders (P=.28, −.32, and −.17, respectively). Clinical variables by type of diabetes are shown in Table 2. As expected, responders with T1DM were more likely to be on Insulin than those with T2DM (P<.001) whereas responders with T2DM were more likely to be on anti-hypertensive (P<.001) and lipid lowering medication (P<.001).
Height and weight were recorded for 660 patients at their required first post-diagnostic clinic (on average 15 weeks from diagnosis) from 1994 onwards. Annual mean BMI SDS of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes did not alter (average non-significant change smaller than ±0.02 SDS/year) over the period for the entire population, or for any gender, age, or ethnicity sub-group. There was no association between BMI SDS and age at diagnosis.
Type 2 Diabetes is one of the major consequences of the obesity epidemic and according to Diabetes New Zealand is New Zealand’s fastest-growing health crisis. In terms of diabetes diagnosis, Type 2 currently accounts for around 90% of all cases. Also of concern to health professionals is that there are large numbers of people with silent, undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes which may be damaging their bodies. An estimated 258,000 New Zealanders are estimated to have some form of diabetes, with than number doubling over the past decade.
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