Participants who were referred to the study by clinicians or who self referred were contacted by a research assistant via phone to discuss the study and confirm eligibility. All eligible participants completed informed consent followed by baseline assessment over the phone with a research assistant before randomisation. All participants continued with their usual diabetes care including all medical visits, tests, and diabetes support programmes throughout the study. In addition, the intervention group received SMS4BG. Control participants received usual care only. All participants completed a follow-up phone interview nine months after randomisation (within three weeks of the nine month date). HbA1c blood tests (at baseline, three, six, and nine months) were undertaken through standard care and results obtained through medical records.
Understanding how food affects blood sugar level and constantly monitoring it is a way of life for those with diabetes. This largely involves the balance between the amount of insulin currently in the body at any given time and how the foods we eat change that it. At center stage for this daily drama are carbohydrates. Knowing the difference between how the various types of carbohydrates are processed by the body is key to maintaining blood sugar levels. (more…)
Of mobile phone owners, those using diabetes apps were more likely to have T1DM (30/96) than T2DM (n=7/61); (P=.006). App users were younger with a mean age of 39.0 years (SD 11.1) compared to non-app users having a mean of 52.5 years (SD 15.6), (P<.001). There were no other significant differences in clinical variables between app and non-app users.
Interventions The intervention group received a tailored package of text messages for up to nine months in addition to usual care. Text messages provided information, support, motivation, and reminders related to diabetes self management and lifestyle behaviours. The control group received usual care. Messages were delivered by a specifically designed automated content management system.
With technology advancing rapidly, there is a call for mHealth to move towards more complex technology. However, this study has shown that text messaging—available on any mobile phone—although simple, is still potentially effective for improving glycaemic control. Equally, this study had very few technical difficulties, which probably contributed to the high satisfaction with the intervention. The individual tailoring of the intervention, and ability for participants to choose varying components and dosages, means that questions remain around the ideal duration for implementation as well as the components most important for effectiveness. Further research is needed to understand the components of this intervention that are most effective and the ideal intervention dosage to further refine this intervention and inform the development of future interventions. With participants highly satisfied with the intervention and largely happy with their intervention dosage, but great variance in the modules, durations, and dosages, SMS4BG may need to remain individually tailored in this way, resulting in a more complex intervention for delivery until further investigation on this can be made.
SMS4BG was delivered in the English language (with the exception of some Māori, Samoan, and Tongan words). With high rates of diabetes in ethnic minority groups, delivery of this type of intervention in languages native to these groups could provide greater benefit. It is likely that some people were not referred to the study, or were unable to take part, due to the criteria that they must be able to read English. SMS health programmes have been translated into other languages such as Te Reo;44 thus, further research needs to look at whether such translations would be of benefit in SMS4BG.
Contributors: RW obtained funding for this trial. All coauthors had input into the study protocol. RD, RW, RMu, and MS contributed to the development of the intervention content. RD managed the day-to-day running of the trial and delivery of the intervention. RD and RW collected the data. YJ and RD did the data analyses. All coauthors were involved in the interpretation of the results. RD wrote the article with input from all coauthors. All authors, external and internal, had full access to all of the data (including statistical reports and tables) in the study and can take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. All authors approved the final version of this manuscript. RD is guarantor. The corresponding author attests that all listed authors meet authorship criteria and that no others meeting the criteria have been omitted.
Statistical analyses were performed by SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute). All statistical tests were two sided at a 5% significance level. Analyses were performed on the principle of intention to treat, including all randomised participants who provided at least one valid measure on the primary outcome after randomisation. Demographics and baseline characteristics of all participants were first summarised by treatment group with descriptive statistics. No formal statistical tests were conducted at baseline, because any baseline imbalance observed between two groups could have occurred by chance with randomisation.
Today’s first post is titled “Why ‘Stop Diabetes’?” can be found at www.diabetesstopshere.org. This initial post seeks to explain why the Stop Diabetes movement was created and its goal for engaging the public. “The goal of the Stop Diabetes movement is to grow to epic proportions, to be bigger than the disease itself,” the blog explains. “In short, it’s the answer to why the Association does the work that it does.”
Lack of insulin results in ketoacidosis. Ketones are acids that develop in the blood and appear in the urine. Ketones could poison the body and this is a warning sign that the diabetes is out of control. Symptoms of diabetes involve nausea, shortness of breath, vomiting, fruity flavor in breath, dry mouth, and high glucose levels. Complications associated with diabetes are retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, heart disease and gangrene. Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar is yet another problem associated with diabetes mellitus. Symptoms include hunger, tremor, seizure, sweating, dizziness, jerks, tingling sensation and pale skin color. Improper management of diabetes causes low blood sugar, which in turn causes hypoglycemic coma. It is a life threatening condition.